The goal of this flagship project is to develop low-cost, lightweight, multi-junction photovoltaics (PV) with high-power conversion efficiency (PCE) and superior radiation-resistance for space applications by leveraging a revolutionary manufacturing method invented collaboratively by MIT and Khalifa University. PV devices for extraterrestrial operation need to be optimized for high specific power and low areal density (kg/m2) due to the limited carry-weight capacity and surface area of the spacecraft. In addition, space PVs require radiation-hardened cells and/or packaging to minimize formation of crystallographic defects from high-energy particle induced ionization events. However, it has been challenging for conventional PV technology to produce space PV that satisfies all of the above requirements for several reasons. First, the choice of materials for monolithic multi-junction PVs is limited by fundamental lattice constraints on epitaxial growth of dissimilar semiconductor compounds. Second, selective removal of the active PV layers from the substrate for weight reduction requires grinding away expensive III-V substrates. And third, the choice of radiation-resistant PV and packing materials are also limited by the lack of readily accessible and affordable wafers.